Water and Environmental Bibliography

The FLOW-3D Bibliography contains an extensive collection of technical publications that contain FLOW-3D results. We have created this resource (thanks to all our users) to help both our customers and those interested in learning more about our software to help guide future developments using CFD software. Many of these papers are available for download while others must be purchased through the publisher’s website. Explore the articles using FLOW-3D results in a variety of industries using the menu on the right.

Have you published a paper with FLOW-3D results that’s not listed here? Please let us know so that we can include a reference to your publication.

Featured Technical Paper

Design of living barriers to reduce the impacts of snowdrifts on Illinois freeways

John Petrie, et al. (2020) Illinois Center for Transportation Series No. 20-019, Research Report No. FHWA-ICT-20-012.

  • Illinois Center for Transportation performed CFD simulations using FLOW-3D to develop guidelines for placement of living snow fences (LSFs), an alternative to structural snow fences, to minimize snowdrift on state highways.
  • Snow fencing along highways reduces some of the need for plowing, chemicals, and road closures, and improves road safety during snowfall events. LSFs are a lower-cost and longer-lasting alternative to structural snow fencing.
  • Considerations for the design and placement of structural snow fencing include fence height, porosity, length, bottom gap, and prevailing wind direction. However, the natural development of LSFs means that features such as height and porosity will change over time.
Diagram: Contours of velocity magnitude from numerical simulations of a fence, actual model versus porosity model
From Petrie et al. (2020)

A series of numerical simulations of flow around porous fences were performed using the CFD software FLOW-3D. The modeling approach was validated using laboratory data collected in a wind tunnel for flow around a fence with nonuniform porosity. Following validation, the numerical approach was used to test a model for fence porosity and investigate the effect of row spacing for fences comprised of two rows of vegetation. The simulations focused on a range of average wind speeds and fence porosity over flat terrain, and the results of these simulations were used to estimate the region of snow deposition using a threshold shear velocity. For sites where the terrain cannot be considered flat, simulations were performed for an embankment with different fence configurations.

The CFD simulations provide an estimate of the length of the region where snow deposition is expected as a function of fence characteristics. Subsequently, the results of the simulations are employed to develop design guidelines for LSFs.”


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