Coastal and Maritime

Download user presentations that focus on coastal and maritime applications using FLOW-3D from past users conferences.


Levelling system new shipping lock IJmuiden, the Netherlands

Jeroen Adema, Arcadis Netherlands, John Richardson and Randy Lagumbay, Arcadis USA

This presentation was given at both the 17th FLOW-3D European Users Conference and the 2017 FLOW-3D Americas Users Conference.

Arcadis is one of the consultants within the consortium OpenIJ that is building the new shipping lock in IJmuiden for the Dutch Ministry of Public Works. This lock, the biggest in the world, will improve the connection between the port of Amsterdam and the North Sea. The most crucial topic in terms of design was to show that the levelling system could meet the requirements on levelling times and forces on a moored ship. First, three validation cases were carried out to show the reliability of FLOW-3D, before we could start to model the levelling system. Grid sizes as small as 1 cm were required to model the geometry of the levelling system in enough detail to obtain reliable values for the discharge coefficient. Flow patterns were evaluated on the spreading of the high velocity zones downstream, which led to a design optimization of the breaking bar geometry. Energy losses and discharge coefficients were input to determine lift gate operations with the 1D model Lockfill. Physical scale model tests in the lab were used for the final check of the levelling times and forces on the ship. Discharge coefficients from FLOW-3D compared well with those of the scale model.


Cyclone wave loads on wharf structure using the New-wave approach

Trevor Elliott and Michael Fullarton; W.F. Baird & Associates

A three-dimensional numerical model was developed of a pile-supported wharf structure for a new iron ore marine loading facility in Western Australia. FLOW-3D was used in this study to support a scoping assessment to investigate the model’s ability to generate extreme waves in shallow water and predict wave-in-deck loads on the wharf structure.

The generation of extreme waves in shallow water can be problematic for numerical models due to non-linearities and breaking in these highly dynamic and complex conditions. The CFD model was essential for the simulation of wave-structure interactions, free-surface breakup/fluid splashing, and the computation of localized impact pressures and global forces on structural members of the wharf deck.

Wave generation in the numerical model used the New-wave approach (Tromans et al., 1991) so that the most probable extreme wave is obtained immediately. This feature was essential considering that running 3-hour sea states was not feasible in the CFD model. The use of the New wave model for design wave conditions is an attractive alternative to more traditional non-linear periodic wave theories (e.g. Stokes/Stream-function theories) where, as noted by Tromans et al., application of the new wave model to fluid load assessments offers the realism of time­ domain simulations with the speed and convenience of a deterministic analysis.


Application of FLOW-3D to tsunami analyses

Osamu Kiyomiya1 and Yasunori Nemoto2

1Waseda University
2Flow Science Japan, Ltd.

A plate-boundary thrust earthquake at the Japan Trench of magnitude 9.0 occurred at March 11, 2011, with its epicenter located in the Pacific Ocean off the Japan coast. The quake caused immense tsunami damage in coast areas. The observed height of the tsunami was 7-10m. Damage occurred over a wide area, and all facilities located within the coastal area suffered damage. To study the causes of these damage and establishment of the counter measures, various analyses have been carried out. This presentation outlines the tsunami and damage of the structures in the Pacific Ocean off the Japan Coast in 2011.

Application of FLOW-3D for tsunami analysis started about 10 years ago and validity of the tsunami estimation has been done by comparing simulation results to experiment results. FLOW-3D is widely applicable for various problems about the tsunami. Estimation of wave height and wave velocity of tsunami is important to know potential damaged area, to establish evacuation plans, etc. Estimation of wave force is also necessary for stability design of the structures. Analysis of drift materials and ships estimate safety of the human beings and the structures during tsunami.

This presentation shows several simulation results about the tsunami analysis as case studies. (1) Overflow simulation of the bank and the wall: The tsunami overflowed the bank and the concrete wall. By simulation, velocity and height of the tsunami were estimate to damage of the facilities and scored area. (2) Run up analysis of small port: run-up area and tsunami height were estimated to know the counter measure. (3)Tsunami simulation for model test: Simulation was carried out to know the validity of the FLOW-3D analysis for flume model test.

Numerical and physical model test of pile supported slit wall breakwater

Kwang-Oh Ko1, Chang-Beom Park1, Yonguk Ryu1 and Sung-Bum Yoon2

1Hyundai Institute of Construction Technology
2Hanyang University, Dept. of Civil & Environ. Eng.

The pile-supported slit wall breakwater was devised to dissipate the surface wave and to transmit the undersea current. Hence, the tidal current power generator can be installed among piles to produce the electricity by the interaction of the flow and current turbine and the water turbine can be installed inside the perforated wall to make the wave-induced flow power generation. For the application of the internal wave-maker scheme in the FLOW-3D model, two types of perforated wall are considered to compare the results of the simulations with those of the physical model tests. The numerical simulation was carried out with the internal wave maker in the FLOW-3D model on the basis of the linear wave theory.

The physical model tests were carried out to verify the application of an internal wave-maker in the FLOW-3D model with the pile-supported slit wall breakwater. Two dimensional laboratory experiments have been carried out in the wave flume with the width of 1.4 m, the height of 1.5m, and the length of 40m. In the physical model tests, the wave heights in the wave chambers were measured to investigate the reduction ratio of wave height in accordance with various slit wall shapes and several wave conditions. The achieved results from the physical model tests were compared with those of the numerical simulations to check the appropriateness of the internal generation of wave in the FLOW-3D model. In the view of wave power generation, the regular variation of free elevations at the last chamber is the most important thing to produce the regular generation of electricity. From the comparisons, the numerical test results of free surface elevation at the last chamber showed good agreement with those of the physical model tests. Hence, it is regarded that the applicability of the internal wave-maker in FLOW-3D model is verified with the sufficient accuracy.