Additive Manufacturing & Laser Welding Presentations

Additive Manufacturing & Laser Welding Presentations

Download user presentations that focus on additive manufacturing and laser welding applications of FLOW-3D from past users conferences.

2022

FLOW-3D AM: New features and planned developments

John Wendelbo, Flow Science

Weld and additive manufacturing processes represent some of the most challenging free surface modeling applications in the industry today. The combination of complex heat source and substrate characteristics, with important surface tension effects, and complex pressure fields due to phase change dynamics all contribute to the challenges of modeling these applications. In recent years, Flow Science Japan has been at the cutting edge of these modeling efforts. In this talk, we will review the latest developments as well as upcoming features soon to be available for our user community. Notable improvements include more detailed representations of phase change and free surface pressure fields, advances in multi- material processes, and advances in heat transfer calculations for multi-layer materials. User interface improvements will also be covered in this presentation.

Computational fluid dynamics modelling of the dimensional stability of deposited layers in material extrusion additive manufacturing

Md Tusher Mollah, Raphaël Comminal, Marcin P. Serdeczny, Berin Šeta, David B. Pedersen, and Jon Spangenberg, Technical University of Denmark

Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing (MEX-AM) is an umbrella term for several different fabrication methods such as fused filament fabrication, robocasting, and 3D concrete printing. These layer-by-layer fabrication methods are used to manufacture 3-dimensional components/structures of materials like thermoplastics, thermosets, reinforced polymers, ceramic pastes, and concrete. Finding the processing conditions that lead to high dimensional accuracy and print layer stability, for many materials, is a non-trivial task that requires a lot of experimental trial and error. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed that simulates the deposition flow during the MEX-AM of two layers. Three different modelling approaches (i.e., wet, semisolid, and solid bottom layer) are considered during the deposition of the second layer, thereby mimicking the printing of various materials. The semisolid bottom layer is modelled with a customized viscous solver utilizing the scalar approach to differentiate the layers’ viscosity. This enables the model to simulate the structural buildup of materials such as thermosets, ceramic pastes, and concrete. The results of the CFD model illustrate its strong predictive capabilities when it comes to determining proper printing strategies that provide layer stability and high geometrical precision.

A multi-physics CFD study on the part-to-part gap during remote laser welding of copper-to- steel battery tab connectors with beam wobbling

Giovanni Chianese, University of Naples Federico II and University of Warwick

Remote Laser Welding (RLW) is gaining great importance in the welding of dissimilar metallic thin foils, especially in the context of battery pack manufacturing. However, this application requires high repeatability of the process which can be affected by variations of the part-to-part gaps. Therefore, it is critical to understand the effects of this factor on the physical phenomena involved in the process. This study aims at investigating the capability of a CFD multi-physics model to understand the influence of the laser beam wobbling and part-to-part gap on temperature fields and metal mixing. The model has been implemented and then calibrated with experimental data. Two scenarios with a part-to-part gap (0 and 100 µm) have been considered during lap welding of 300 µm copper to 300 µm nickel-plated steel, with circular beam wobbling. This presentation will demonstrate the capability of the model developed in FLOW-3D and FLOW-3D WELD and will discuss current challenges and future opportunities for improvement.

FLOW-3D used to model the solidification behavior of advanced non-ferrous metals

Nadira Surghani, C. Jasien, K. Clarke, and A. Clarke, Colorado School of Mines and J. Roheling and J. McKeown, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

FLOW-3D was used to model solidification processes, such as castings and additive manufacturing (AM), to observe the effect of processing conditions on the microstructure of metallic alloys. FLOW- 3D CAST was used to develop models of various mold design and processing variations on high- density metallic alloys. The gravity die casting model was modified to predict the thermophysical behavior of uranium for a hemispherical geometry of interest; simulations include thermal die cycling, mold filling, and solidification. Casting modeling will be useful to design future castings and understanding microstructure development in high-density metals during solidification. Additionally, FLOW-3D was used to model simulated AM of beta-titanium alloy experiments performed at Argonne National Laboratory at the Advanced Photon Source. These experiments allowed for the determination of solidification velocities (Vs), while models provided estimated thermal gradients (Gs) throughout the melt pool. The combination of Vs and Gs then allowed for the use of a solidification map to predict microstructure. Validation experiments include real-time imaging of metallic alloy solidification behavior during simulated AM and small-scale castings. Modeling predictions are also compared to predictions made with other commercially available tools, such as Pro-Cast or SYSWELD, and existing experimental data for both solidification processes.

2019

New developments for additive manufacturing and laser welding

Raed Marwan, Flow Science Japan

The focus of this presentation will be on extending the capabilities of FLOW-3D through modules which support the simulation of welding and additive manufacturing processes. The WELD and Discrete Element Method (DEM) modules and the Structure Analysis Interface F.SAI will be discussed, and new and upcoming features as well as planned future developments will be introduced. Several applications such as selective laser melting (SLM) and laser metal deposition (LMD) will also be presented.

2018

Additive Manufacturing and Foaming Applications

Raed Marwan, Flow Science Japan

FLOW-3D’s WELD module has been in research and development for six years now with the cooperation of many users in Japan and other parts of the world. We will present new features in the latest version of the module along with sample applications to show the module’s capabilities. We will also present a new foaming module. Polyurethane foam has many excellent features such as thermal insulation and shock and sound absorption, and is used for refrigerator parts, car parts and many other products. Simulating the precise behavior of polyurethane foaming is very effective for reducing the development period and production costs. During several years of cooperation with Hitachi through collaborative experiments and foaming flow simulations, a new module was developed by Flow Science Japan to extend FLOW-3D’s capabilities to simulate foaming flow simulations.

2017

Advanced Research: Additive Manufacturing

John Wendelbo, Flow Science

Superior productivity and speed, coupled with low heat input are resulting in laser welding processes replacing more conventional welding methods. With better control and smaller heat affected zones, laser processing technology has enabled explosive growth in metal additive manufacturing processes such as powder bed fusion and direct metal deposition. This presentation shall provide a comprehensive overview of FLOW-3D’s modeling capabilities to simulate laser welding and additive manufacturing processes. Using case studies from industry and academia we will look at how process parameter optimization and relevant physical models play a key role in predicting porosity, surface finish and the subsequent microstructure evolution in welding and additive manufacturing processes.

3D numerical simulations of 3D printing: Additive manufacturing in single and multi-layer powder beds

Raed Marwan and Shuhei Baba, Flow Science Japan

Laser-powder bed fusion (L-PBF) additive manufacturing involves complex physical processes. The heat transfer and fluid flow are significantly affected by the local arrangement of powder particles in the powder bed that can vary from location to location. Because of the highly transient fluid flow, the shape of the molten pool surface (a free surface) is constantly evolving, affecting the final surface quality. We will present a case study where we examine the effect of different filling rates of powder beds. Furthermore, we examine the effect of layering another bed on top of previously melted layer and the melting process.

2016

Developments and examples on welding and 3D printing

Raed Marwan, Flow Science Japan

Development progress and plans for a Laser Welding module will be presented, as well as several customer case studies that validate the module. Newly-added and improved features include support for shapes other than circular or conic for the laser head and multiple reflection support. Features currently under development, such as welding with two different metals, will be explained and examples will be shown. Finally, examples in the 3D printing field will be presented.

2015

FLOW-3D developments for welding

Raed Marwan, Flow Science Japan

Development progress and plans for a Laser Welding module will be presented, as well as several customer case studies that validate the module. Additionally, upcoming new features and developments for the structure analysis interface (F.SAI) will be discussed.

2014

Laser welding, discrete element method, and fluid structure analysis

Raed Marwan, Flow Science Japan     

We will present three main developments that we been working on for the last two years at Flow Science Japan. These are Laser Welding, Discrete Element Method, and a one way Fluid Structure Analysis interface that allows the transfer of FLOW-3D data to several structure analysis packages.

Laser beam welding (LBW) is a welding technique used to join multiple pieces of metal through the use of a laser. The beam provides a concentrated heat source, allowing for narrow, deep welds and high welding rates. Furthermore, evaporation of the molten metal can occur based on the laser beam output.

With FLOW-3D and our laser welding customization, the process can be reproduced because of its capability to model with high accuracy the metal phase change, molten flow, and the solidification due to heat radiation and conductivity. Furthermore, the surface tension highly influences the melting metal flow which requires a highly-accurate, free-surface tracking model.

Discrete element method (DEM). Also called the “distinct element method,” DEM is of the family of numerical methods for computing the motion of a large number of particles of micrometer-scale size and above. A short description of the theory behind the method and several simple examples of the implementation of the model in FLOW-3D will be presented.

F.SAI (FLOW-3D Structure Analysis Interface) enables you to import fluid pressures, temperature, and wall temperature from a FLOW-3D –FLOW-3D/MP simulation into a structure analysis packages such as NASTRAN or ABAQUS. This one-way transfer at a fluid-structure interface allows you to investigate the effects of fluid flow in a static or transient structural analysis. The one way transfer of temperature or Wall temperature information from a FLOW-3D –FLOW-3D/MPanalysis can be used to determine the temperature distribution on a structure in a thermal analysis or the induced stresses in a structural analysis.

2013

Fluxless laser brazing of aluminium alloy to galvanized steel using a tandem beam – dissimilar laser brazing of aluminum alloy and steels

Kazuyoshi Saida, Haruki Ohnishi and Kazutoshi Nishimoto, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University

Tandem beam brazing with aluminum filler metal (BA4047) was conducted in order to develop the fluxless laser brazing technique of aluminum alloy (AA6022) to galvanized steels (GA and GI steels). Laser powers of tandem beam and offset distance of preheating beam from the root to the steel base metal were varied. Sound braze beads could be obtained by optimizing the preheating and main beam powers under the offset distances of 0-1 mm. A small amount of zinc remained at the braze interface between galvanized steels and the braze metal. The reaction layer consisting of Fe-Al inter metallic compounds was also formed at the steel interface, and the thickness of reaction layer could be predicted during the laser brazing (thermal cycle) process based on the growth kinetics with the additivity rule. The metal flow analysis of the melted filler metal on joints revealed that wettability and spread-ability of the filler metal on the GI steel joint were superior to those on the GA steel joint. The fracture strength of the lap joint attained approximately 55-75% of the base metal strength of aluminum alloy. It was concluded that fluxless laser brazing could be successfully performed by using a tandem beam because the zinc coat layer acted as the brazing flux.

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