Letter from the Editor
"There are many paths which may lead to happiness, but there is none which does so for certain."
We hear a lot these days about over and under: over budget and under-funded or over-qualified and underemployed or overweight and under-nourished. Not to be left out, we report in this issue of the News on several over or under issues that are important to many of our users.
Under-filling a high-pressure die casting mold is bad as it means the cast part has defects and will be unusable. To reduce this possibility, you will find an application article that describes a vacuum assisted filling technique. The idea being if you can't push it in then suck it in; something that a few people we know do with their midsections.
The making of cast iron parts can be complicated by over or under expansion of the metal during solidification. Such behavior is caused by the amount of carbon and other elements in the alloy, which can separate from the iron during solidification. Having a different crystalline structure, the trace elements can alter the volume change experienced by the alloy as it cools. Read the article on iron solidification to get a good over view of an under-appreciated problem, and use this new model development to improve your cast iron simulations.
Finally, in Hints and Tips there is a detailed discussion of how to check for overuse of computer memory and understand what might be done about it. It is hoped that all this over and under stuff about our software will give you a warm feeling, not unlike a favorite overcoat or undershirt.