FLOW-3D solves full conjugate heat transfer equations, accounting for heat transfer between fluid, solid and void through conduction, convection and basic radiation. Heat transfer coefficients between different media can be either user-defined or calculated automatically based on the type of the flow. Both first- and second-order thermal energy advection algorithms are available. Several options are available to model heat transfer between fluid and solids – from specified heat flux to power source to prescribed temperature, – providing the flexibility to model a wide range of thermal processes.
Additional capabilities are available, coupled to the basic heat transfer model. Liquid/solid and liquid/vapor phase change models can be used to simulate metal solidification, drying and boiling of water, and spray cooling. Viscous heating could also be included in high-speed viscous flows.
The simulation above shows the fluid entering the mold at a higher temperature and cooled by its surroundings, including the open atmosphere and the solid mold.