FLOW-3D Version 9.4 - New Features
This new release of FLOW-3D, a computational fluid dynamics software, is packed with useful features and capabilities across the spectrum of industrial applications. The following summary highlights the key new benefits offered in Version 9.4.
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New CFD Modeling Capabilities
Multi-Sediment Scour and Bedload Transport Model
The sediment scour model has been extended to allow the simulation of multiple species of sediment. Among other things, this will allow users to model sands, silts and fine gravel in a single simulation. The addition also includes a bed-load transport model which describes the transport of heavier debris by the currents along the top of the packed bed.
Scour Potential Model
In conjunction with the changes to the sediment scour model, a new scour potential model has been added to FLOW-3D. This model is a simplified version of the sediment scour model in that, rather than computing the transport of sediment, the model evaluates the excess shear stress (that is, the shear stress above which scouring may occur) along solid surfaces. The scour potential model allows users to evaluate the likelihood of scour without incurring the computational expense of using the full scour model.
Excess shear stress on the riverbed.
For more detail on both models, refer to the Sediment Scour Development Note in the Spring 2009 Newsletter.
Core Gas Generation and Transport
Gas mass flux at the core surface.
A new core gas model has been introduced in version 9.4 of the computational fluid dynamics software, FLOW-3D. This model describes the generation of gas in sand cores during the pouring and cooling of metal. The gas comes from the decomposition of the sand binder due to the heat coming from the metal. The model is based on first principles and aims at capturing in detail the heat transfer between metal and mold, binder pyrolysis and the flow of gas within the core, and its venting at the core’s external surfaces.
The core gas model can be used together with filling and solidification simulations. The model predicts the gas pressure and velocities, and evaluates the mass flux of gas at core prints, at the open surfaces and, most importantly, into the metal.
Non-Linear Stokes Wave
FLOW-3D v9.4 produces a realistic simulation of a 5th-order Stokes wave
FLOW-3D’s linear surface wave boundary condition has been complemented with the addition of a new fifth-order non-linear Stokes wave model. The model allows users to introduce periodic surface waves at higher amplitude and steeper profile than can be allowed for the linear wave model.
For more detail on this new model, refer to the Development Note in the Summer 2009 Newsletter.
Thermo-physical properties of some fluids and solids vary significantly with temperature. Taking into account this behavior is important for obtaining accurate numerical solutions. Version 9.4 of FLOW-3D allows users to define these properties as a function of temperature in a tabular form. Almost all properties of fluid and geometry components, including the fluid/solid heat transfer coefficients, can now be defined as a function of temperature.
For more detail on this addition, refer to the Development Note in the Summer 2009 Newsletter.
Additions to the General Moving Objects Model
The General Moving Objects model, introduced in version 9.0 of FLOW-3D, is again the subject of more extensions and improvements, as customers stretch the model and seek greater functionalities. The most important addition for version 9.4 is the ability to model objects attached to one another by springs or ropes.
Springs & Ropes Capability
FLOW-3D simulation of an offshore oil
platform tethered to the seabed.
Objects with coupled motion can be tethered by spring or ropes to other moving or stationary objects or to arbitrary fixed points in space. Several types of springs can be modeled such as expansion, compression and torsion springs. This will give FLOW-3D users an even greater breadth of applications that they can model. For example, spring forces and torques can be applied to valves and other moving mechanical parts in numerical simulations. In ocean engineering, users can study the stability of Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading (FPSO) systems. Fluid structure interactions for maritime applications, such as motions of floating wave power generation systems, mooring of ship and marine measurement equipment and boat towing can also be simulated.
For more detail on this new capability, refer to the Development Note in the Fall 2008 Newsletter.
Control forces with application points
In version 9.4, users will be able to define up to three control forces and the points of their application on a moving component, making it easier to represent real life situations. Previously, all forces had to be converted to a single force and torque acting at mass center.
The user can request the evaluation of the buoyancy center on a submerged moving object. The buoyancy center is computed as the geometric center of the displaced fluid volume assuming the free surface is relatively flat and facing the positive z-direction.
New Data Output
In FLOW-3D v9.4, the hydraulic head is calculated in every cell.
The growing community of hydraulics users will now be able to capture even more data from their FLOW-3D simulations, including depth-averaged velocity, fluid velocity at a vertical offset from the riverbed and the total hydraulic head. The last of these is based on the Bernoulli integral and can also be useful in metal casting and other applications where flow losses in complex channels are of interest.
Users can now view two data sets (still images or animations) simultaneously in FLOW-3D v9.4.
A number of additions and improvements to the visualization of FLOW-3D results have been implemented, including the ability to view two 3D plots, enabling users to compare results from different simulations or create two views for the same simulation results. Other changes include the capability to combine fluid and wall temperature in a single 2D contour plot and the ability to interactively seed streamlines.